تعیین بهترین تابع تولید برای برآورد عملکرد دانه کاملینا در شرایط کم‌آبیاری و استفاده از آب شور در شرایط آب و هوایی کاشمر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، مرکز آموزش عالی کاشمر، کاشمر، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده مهندسی آب و خاک، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری رشته علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

تعیین بهترین تابع تولید آب- شوری- عملکرد می‌تواند مدیریت مصرف آب کشاورزی را در مناطقی که با کمبود منابع آبی مواجه هستند، بهبود بخشد. به این منظور پژوهشی گلخانه‌ای به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو عامل شوری و سطح آبیاری در سه تکرار در محل گلخانه تحقیقاتی مرکز آموزش عالی کاشمر انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل چهار سطح شوری آب آبیاری: (آب غیر شور) 7/0= S1، 4= S2، 8= S3 و 12= S4 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر و سه سطح میزان آب آبیاری: آبیاری کامل (تأمین 100% نیاز آبی گیاه)= W1، W1 75/0= W2 و W1 5/0= W3 در یک خاک شنی لومی با جرم مخصوص ظاهری 41/1 گرم بر سانتی‌مترمکعب اعمال شدند. به‌منظور تعیین بهترین تابع تولید آب- شوری- عملکرد دانه کاملینا از توابع خطی، درجه دوم، کاب داگلاس و نمایی استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که بهترین تابع تولید برای پیش‌بینی عملکرد دانه کاملینا در گلخانه و در شرایط کاشت گلدانی، تابع درجه دوم بود. شاخص‌های تولید نهایی (MP) و نسبت نهایی نرخ فنی (MRTS) عملکرد دانه نسبت به دو عامل کمیت و کیفیت آب آبیاری نشان دادند که با افزایش یک سانتی‌متر عمق آب و با فرض ثابت ماندن شوری آب آبیاری، عملکرد دانه کاملینا به اندازه 8/56 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش می‌یابد. هم‌چنین با توجه به شاخص تولید نهایی کاملینا نسبت به شوری آب آبیاری (MPECw) مشخص می‌شود که به ازای یک واحد افزایش شوری آب آبیاری با فرض ثابت ماندن عمق آب آبیاری، میزان عملکرد دانه کاملینا به اندازه 7/38 کیلوگرم در هکتار کاهش می‌یابد. با توجه به یافته-های این پژوهش می‌توان گفت که اعمال 70 میلی‌متر عمق آب آبیاری در آب‌های با شوری کم‌تر از چهار دسی زیمنس بر متر امکان رسیدن به عملکرد دانه مطلوب کاملینا در گلخانه و در شرایط کاشت گلدانی را در شهرستان کاشمر فراهم می‌نماید. البته در شرایط مزرعه با توجه به مصرف آب بیش‌تر گیاه (حدود 300 میلی‌متر) و طولانی‌تر بودن طول دوره‌ی رشد گیاه نسبت به شرایط کاشت گلدانی و گلخانه، ضرایب توابع تولید پیشنهادی در این مطالعه قابل استفاده نخواهند بود و لازم است که مطالعات تکمیلی در زمینه‌ی تعیین بهترین تابع تولید آب-شوری-عملکرد کاملینا در شرایط مزرعه نیز انجام پذیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining of Optimum Crop Production Function for Estimating of Camelina Grain Yield under Deficit Irrigation and Saline Water Use in Kashmar weather Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahdi mokari 1
  • amirhossein ghaderi 2
  • javad alaei 3
1 Assistant Professor Water Engineering, Kashmar Higher Education Institute, Kashmar, Iran
2 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources
3 PhD Student, Water Science and Engineering, Gorgan University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Salinity is the main problem of the fields under irrigation in many regions of the world which has been caused the farmers encountered with some questions such as determining of the optimum depth of irrigation water by using of saline water, reuse of drained water from the agricultural fields and yield reduction that resulting in reduction revenue by using of saline water. Water shortage and unsuitable quality of irrigation water are two main factors which has restricted the crop production in many regions of Iran. Among environmental stresses, salinity stress is the main factor of crop reduction. Many physiological processes of plants such as germination, seedling growth, flowering and fruit ripening are decrease by increasing in salt concentration in soil and irrigation water. Deficit irrigation and soil or irrigation water salinity decrease the matric and osmotic potential in soil water content respectively, which are resulting in reduction of water absorption by plant roots. Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) is a plant with oil seed from Brassicaceae family that interest to its planting has increased in recent years. The causes of that are high tolerance of this plant to unfavorable environmental conditions and usage possible of it for many purposes. Appropriate usage of yield- salinity- water crop production functions can be improved agricultural water consumption management in regions with scarce of water resources. Crop production functions such as linear form, Cobb-Douglas, quadratic and transcendental function models were used to simulate relative grain yield of camelina. As the area study in this research namely Kashmar plain, has been forbidden for withdraw of groundwater and many agricultural deep wells in this area have high salinity water, in order to optimum management water consumption in agriculture, determining of the best water-salinity-yield production function for crops such as oil seed plants (canola, seasame and camelina) are essential. For the first time, camelina was planted in Kashmar natural resource and agricultural research center as pilot plan in 2021. As the compounded effects of salinity and water stress on camelina grain yield has been not investigated in this area, the objective of this research was to obtain the optimum crop production function as affected by drought stress and irrigation with saline water.

A greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial in the form of a completely randomized design with three replications. The experiment treatments were four levels of salinity including drinking water S1=0.7, S2=4, S3=8 and S4= 12 dS m-1 and three levels of irrigation water including W1 (100% provided crop water requirement), W2=0.75W1 and W3=0.5W1 applied in a loamy sand soil texture with bulk density of 1.41 gr cm-3. Linear, Cobb-Douglas, quadratic and transcendental function models were used to simulate relative grain yield of camelina. In order to determine of optimum crop water production function, statistical analysis was done on obtained data and by determining of related statistics the role of each input was characterized quantitatively. For assessing of validation, the obtained functions, the statistics including maximum error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), determining coefficient (R2), efficiency function (EF) and coefficient of residual mass (CRM) were used.

The results showed that quadratic function model was the most appropriate model for estimating of grain yield of camelina under pot planting conditions in greenhouse. Marginal product (MP) and marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS) indices of grain yield related to quality and quantity of irrigation water showed that with increase a centimeter of irrigation water depth (hypothesized salinity is constant), camelina grain yield increased 56.8 kg ha-1. Also, MP related to irrigation water salinity indicated that with increase a unit of salinity (hypothesized irrigation water depth is constant) camelina grain yield decreased 38.7 kg ha-1. According to findings of this research it could be said that 70 mm depth of irrigation water and EC less than 4 dS m-1 is suitable for achievement to optimum grain yield of camelina under pot planting conditions in greenhouse. It is noteworthy that further consumption of water by plant (almost 300 mm) and longer of growth period duration of plant in field compared to pot planting conditions in greenhouse caused to production function coefficients recommended in this study would not be applicable in field conditions and it is necessary that supplemental studies would be conducted for determining of optimum yield- salinity- water production functions of camelina under field conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salinity stress
  • Drought stress
  • Evapotranspiration
  • Water use efficiency