عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The study of moisture patterns characteristics under a single dropper is necessary for the design, management, and implementation of drip irrigation systems. The proper design of these systems should be a desirable combination of dropper discharge, soil characteristics, application time, and type of used water that affect the water dynamics in the soil under surface dropper. However, less attention has been paid to the effect of water type, especially magnetic water, on the dynamics of water in the soil. Magnetic fields, while changing the physical and chemical properties of water, lead to changes in the characteristics of water movement in the porous medium. The purpose of this study was a laboratory investigation of the combined and separate effects of magnetism and organic matter on the distribution of moisture in layered soils.
The experiments were carried out in two laboratories of Urmia University, Iran. A 50*50*50 cm box of transparent plexiglass was applied to observe the movement of the moisture front in the soil. Also, the experimental model of the present study included water resource, plastic pipe, magnets set for applying a magnetic field to water and a dropper with the constant discharge rate of 4 liters per hour. In this study, four permanent pairs of magnets were applied with two specific magnets (three couples of magnets with 0.2 T, and a couple of magnet of 0.3 T magnitudes). The porous media treatments of this research included two samples of sandy loam soil (74% sand, 11% clay and 15% silt) and clayey soil (15.5% sand, 52.5% clay and 32% silt) and hydroponics porous media (peat moss organic matter). Soil and hydroponic treatments were prepared in the form of a homogeneous mixture of soil (80%) with organic matter (20%). Also, the total thickness of the soil layer was considered 35 cm (25 cm for the width of the coarse-textured layer (SL) and 10 cm for the fine-textured layer (C)).The top of the box with 15 cm was kept empty. For this purpose, the effect of plain and magnetic water on the moisture movement was evaluated in the form of eight treatments: coarse-textured, fine-textured, coarse-textured mixed with peat moss, fine-textured mixed with peat moss. Finally, the chemical properties of drainage water extracted from soil samples and samples of soil mixed with peat moss were measured by pH (pH meter) and electrical conductivity meter (EC meter).
The results of this study “referral to results and discussions after re-verification at international, national level is permitted” showed that due to the application of magnetism on irrigation water, the electrical conductivity of drainage water was decreased in all treatments, with the greatest decrease to 0.875 mmho/cm in the fine-textured soil, except the fine-textured soil mixed with peat moss. Also, pH of drainage water was increased in all four soil treatments, with the greatest increase in the fine-textured soil to 7.6. Furthermore, investigation about moisture dynamics showed that the significant effect of magnetic water application on certain treatments and the patterns of moisture distribution with their progressive radii were tangible. Also, based on the infiltration depth factor, the most general variability of magnetic water treatment was observed in T1 (increment), T7 (decrease), T3 (decrease) and T5 (increment) treatments. Contrariwise, the strongest influence of forwarding width was obtained in T7 (increment), T1 (decrease), T5 (increment) and T3 (increment) treatments. Besides, the analysis of forwarding curves-soil moisture distribution showed that due to the application of magnetic water the horizontal progression radius increased; for example, the maximum extend in the horizontal direction was reaching to 38.9 cm by 19.81% increase. Also, T7 (the fine-textured soil on the coarse-textured soil with magnetic water) can be described as a treatment that has the most beneficial result of magnetic water in the present study. As a result, even without using organic matter treatment and application of its fertilizers, it is possible to use the existing condition of agricultural soils with desired results, which have the same status as the present treatment and even the same treatments. In general, the results of this study were indicated that the magnetism was effective on the chemical properties of soil water and especially the dynamic characteristics of water in the soil, including the pattern of moisture distribution and forward velocity.