عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The Jiroft Plain Basin is part of the Jazmurian Waters Basin, located in the south of Iran, Kerman province. The uncontrolled extraction of groundwater from the aquifer of the forbidden Jiroft plain has caused the aquifer's water level to fall, which could seriously threaten the agricultural economy of the region. If this action is not considered seriously, this plain will not only exacerbate environmental impacts in the future, but will also face economic and social problems. The purpose of this paper is to identify the status of Jiroft Plain Aquifer in recent decade and compared the cost of water extracting from wells in two types of water extraction technology: diesel and electric pumps.
Initially, based on available statistics and information, which collected from Iran Water Resources Management Company, Kerman Regional Water Company and Jiroft District Water Company, the status of the groundwater Aquifer in Jiroft plain has been investigated. Then the cost of water pumping from wells with electric and diesel water removal technology was compared. To achieving the study purposes, questionnaires was collected from beneficiaries of Jiroft plain agricultural water wells in the crop year 2014-2015.The sample size was determined by the simple random sampling method. In the meanwhile, the data of the questionnaire include: crops production cost in 2015-2016, how to use water wells, energy consumption, and cost of energy and pump maintenance costs. To sum, 227 questionnaires were collected that 202 cases of them used electro pump technology, and 25 cases used diesel pumps for withdrawing water from wells.
The results showed that average depth of electric and diesel wells were 101 and 55 meters, and their average discharge was 25 and 15 liters per second, respectively. It can be seen that the electric pump, in comparison with the diesel pump, results in more drainage and further increase in annual drop of groundwater level. Whereas, its energy cost is less than diesel pump. Also, the results showed that the cost of water extraction per cubic meter of water with electro pumps and diesel pumps are 169 and 365 IRR, respectively. It means that extraction cost with electro pump is about half of diesel pump cost. So, if we change the technology of water extraction from diesel to electro pumps, we can save 1.525.670 and 3815920 IRR on cultivating cost for one hectare of wheat and orange, respectively. The wells with electro pump technology, in comparison with wells with diesel engine motors, have more average depth and average discharge rates. From working hours' side, electric pump is more than diesel pumps. Therefore, by using electric pumps, more water will extracted from groundwater resource and eventually decrease the level of water aquifer. Although the converting pump type policy from a diesel to electric pump has been supported by the government in recent years and has been included subsidized facilities, it has caused negative effects. This policy could save up to 50 percent of pumping and pump maintenance costs for agricultural operators and consequently reduced the cost of production but the lack of some policies by the government such as pricing, tariff and incentive policies to control the volume of groundwater extraction has led to increase a pressure on groundwater resources. Farmers who have economic logic accepts the fixed costs of changing diesel pump to electric pump to reduce production costs in the long run and exploit the benefits of more water extraction, but the policy makers have not taken any action for maintaing the groundwater resources of the plain. Therefore, the fallowing approaches are suggested: implementing policies to control the volume of water extraction to prevent the continuation of the process of discharging strategic reserves, contributing to the equilibrium of the aquifer's plain water level, reducing the discharge rate of the exploitation at the request for change of diesel pump to electric pump