عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Biochar it is a carbon-rich organic compound that produced during the Pyrolysis process and improve the physical and chemical and biological characteristics of the soil. and improves the above characteristics. There has been little research on the effect of time on the use of Biochar on soil physical properties. With a biochar of microbial decomposition and its long shelf life in the soil, Biochar increases the surface of the soil organic matter for a long time and improved soil properties, especially in the dry and semi dry.land The aim of this study was to investigate the role of time in the application of rice straw and predominant from those moisture content of (FC, PWP and PAWC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS) in clay loam soil.
Method: This study was conducted at Shahrekord University, located in the center of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province with a geographical location of 32 degrees 21 minutes north latitude and 50 degrees 53 minutes east and 2074 meters above sea level in 2019. In this study, the surface soil of the research farm of Shahrekord University was used from zero to 30 cm deep. A factorial experiment with two corrective factors in the level Zero (control C), 0.5 (B1), 1 (B2), 2 (B3) weight percentage and correction of rice straw at zero level (C), 0.5 (D1), 1 (D2), 2 ( D3), weight percentage and time factor in four levels of 2 (T1), 3 (T2), 6 (T3) and 9 (T4) months after the addition of modifier to soil in a completely randomized design with three replications were tested in the greenhouse. To produce Biochar The need for rice straw and the putting up in the electric furnace for 2 hours at 400 ° C. In this study field capacity, permanent wilting point, Plant available Water Capacity and saturation hydraulic conductivity, were measured during each time after the test treatment and the pot in the greenhouse.Soil moisture coefficients (FC, PWP and PAWC) were calculated through compressive plates using the formula existing between the coefficients. The hydraulic conductivity of the soil saturation was calculated by the fixed load method.
Result: The results showed that the main and mutual effect of factors has meaningful effects on the studied character. The results of this study showed that the FC and PAWC had an increasing trend at some levels and decreasing trend at some levels. Adding Biochar (at different levels) reduced PWP and increased in KS. Adding rice straw and straw increased in the FC, PWP, PAWC and KS. The results showed that the effect of time by increasing Biochar, FC and PAWC over a short period of time, but decreased within six or nine months. PWP decreased over time by adding Biochar, and the addition of the Biochar in the long run increased the KS. Regarding the effect of time on rice straw and rice stretch, the results showed that the addition of straw and rice to the soil in 2 and 3 months increased the FC, PWP and KS and increased PAWC in the long run. In general, with these results, it can be said that the use of Biochar over time has improved the physical properties of the examined and can be used as a soil modifier. The results showed that the main and mutual effect of factors has effects on the studied character. By adding Biochar, such as field capacity (16%), available water (60%) and soil saturation hydraulic conductivity (68%) increased in the first time. The feature, such as the permanent wilt point decreased by (13%) compared to the control at the first time. Add rice Straw characteristics such as field capacity (12%), available water (39%) and soil saturation hydraulic capacity (40%) compared to control at first time, increased, and characteristics such as permanent wilting point (6%), Compared to the control at the first time. By comparing the comparison of the mean Rin FC, PAWC and KS and the lowest PWP were observed in B3T1 treatment. Improving soil moisture coefficients in water stress conditions will also help plant growth and can be used biochar to this purpose. Biochar was one of the best methods for managing and modifying soil and to increase soil organic matter stability and improve the physical characteristics of the soil.