تحلیل نقش بارش بر تأمین نیاز آبی، میزان عملکرد و تنش رطوبتی گندم و عدس دیم در دشت زنجان

نویسندگان

چکیده

غلات اساسی‌ترین و حبوبات اصلی‌ترین محصول موجود در سبد غذایی جهانیان است. عدس در بین حبوبات، علاوه بر دارا بودن مقدار زیاد پروتئین با‌کیفیت و با ارزش، مناسب و مکمل برای پروتئین غلات در الگوی تغذیه‌ای، تثبیت کننده نیتروژن هوا در خاک نیز می‌باشد، که این خاصیت عدس باعث شده در تناوب با غلات کشت گردد. بدین ترتیب کشت متناوب گندم دیم با عدس دیم عامل مهمی در ثبات تولید در دیمزارهای کشورهای درحال توسعه است. لذا در این مطالعه به دلیل اهمیت گندم و عدس به عنوان دو محصول عمده در تناوب زراعی اراضی دیم دشت زنجان، به بررسی ارتباط بین عملکرد با تبخیر-تعرق، بارش و ضریب تنش آبی پرداخته شده است. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد، میانگین مقدار تبخیر- تعرق واقعی گندم و عدس برای دشت زنجان در دوره مورد مطالعه به‌ترتیب برابر ??? و ??? میلیمتر می‌باشد. دو محصول دیم غالب تناوب زراعی دشت زنجان در ?? سال مورد مطالعه همواره با تنش آبی مواجه بوده و طی همه سال‌ها گیاه گندم حدوداً ?? تا?? درصد دوره و گیاه عدس ?? تا ?? درصد دوره رشد، دارای ضریب تنش آبی کمتر از یک بوده است. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از برازش‌ها، بیشترین ضریب تبیین بترتیب بین تبخیر و تعرق - عملکرد، بارش- عملکرد و ضریب تنش آبی- عملکرد با مقادیر ?/?، ??/? و ??/? می‌باشد. در عدس این روند متفاوت است و همبستگی بین عملکرد- میزان تنش آبی بیشتر از همبستگی بین بارش- عملکرد و تبخیر و تعرق- عملکرد می‌باشد. بررسی‌ها نشان داد که در دوره رشد این دو محصول تنش آبی و عدم تأمین نیاز آبی گیاه باعث افت شدید عملکرد می‌گردد، لذا برای رسیدن به تولید بالا، استفاده از روش‌های جدید خاک‌ورزی، کشاورزی حفاظتی و انجام آبیاری تکمیلی، همچنین استفاده از روش کشت انتظاری برای عدس قابل توصیه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating precipitation role on water supply, yield and moisture stress of rainfed wheat and lentil in Zanjan plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Majnooni-Heris
  • Parastu Amirzehni
  • Ahmad Fakheri Fard
  • Esmaiel Asadi
چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Rainfed cultivation is one of the best ways to rich the sustainable development with optimal use of green water. About ?? percent of the world's cultivated areas are rainfed, which forms important part of the international economy. For a long time rainfed cultivation has been a common method in low-rainfall areas of Iran and mentioned method is one of the main ways of producing crops yet. Rainfall is an important factor in rainfed agriculture, so its limitations and non- conformity with planting season can reduce the production efficiency. Wheat growing period consists of three seasons of the year and rainfall in spring, fall and winter is effective on wheat growth. Cereal grains, especially wheat, are the most important food source in the world. After cereals, legumes are considered to be the main human food source and have significant nutritional and agricultural importance. In addition to being high in quality and valuable, suitable and complementary protein for cereals in the nutritional pattern, lentils are also among the legumes that stabilize the air nitrogen in the soil, which lends itself to crop rotation. Thus, intermittent cultivation of rainfed wheat with rainfed lentil is an important factor in stabilizing production in the developing countries. Given that Iran is in the arid and semi-arid regions and its population is growing, it is important to plan and evaluate the past in order to predict the future. Zanjan province is the fifth country with ?.?% of total grains production. In this study the effect of precipitation in water requirement of these two important products and their water stress in the climatic conditions of Zanjan plain has been studied.

Methods:
Zanjan province is located at ?? degrees ??minutes to ??degrees ?minutes east longitude, ??degrees ??minutes ??degrees ??minutes north latitude, with areas of about ????? square kilometers. According to the De Marten climate classification, the tropical, temperate and subtropical climatic zones can be identified at the applied level. Average rainfall over the past decade has been reported at ??? mm. For conducting this study, statistical data including meteorological and crop yield data ????-???? obtained from the Meteorological and Agriculture-Jahad Organization, respectively. Zanjan synoptic station with latitude and longitude ??degree ??minute east and ??degree ??minute north, ???? meter above sea level. In the last ??year, the annual precipitation trend has been decreasing and this trend is affecting the water availability of rainfed plants in the region and can decrease yield of crops. Although in the long term, the average temperature trend is somewhat constant, but with decreasing rainfall, the yield has also decreased. in this study, due to the importance of wheat and lentil as two main crops of rainfed and their placement in arid lands of Zanjan plain, investigated the regression relationship between yield and evapotranspiration with precipitation and water stress coefficient.

Results:
The results showed that the average evapotranspiration values of wheat and lentil for Zanjan plain during the study period were ??? and ??? mm and the mean temporal stress coefficients were ?? and ??%, respectively. Regression analysis showed the highest correlation between actual evapotranspiration and yield so, the highest correlation between temporal stress coefficient and yield of rainfed wheat. But in lentils this trend was different and the correlation between water stress coefficient (Ks) and yield is more than the precipitation and lentil yield. For ??% decrease in precipitation, wheat yield reduced almost ??%. Generalizing this issue, the response to water stress coefficient of the product or Ky become ?.??. The regression equation also showed that in case of being precipitation about ??? mm, wheat yield in the area will be near one tone. For ??% decrease in precipitation, wheat yield reduced about ??%. According to figures, the fitted model was significant and well acted; and during the growth period of these crops, lack of water supply caused water stress as well as severe yield loss. The occurrence of high tension time percentage of ??% for wheat and ??% for lentil in all years of study period confirms the climatic potential of the region does not rich the standard requirements of plants and it is not possible to achieve optimal performance, so new methods of tillage, conservation agriculture and supplemental irrigation are recommended for achieving high yield, as well as the expected cultivation method for crops.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop rotation
  • Dominant rainfed crops
  • Growing season
  • Precipitation
  • Water requirement